44 pages 1 hour read


Nicomachean Ethics

Nonfiction | Book | Adult | BCE

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Index of Terms


Bravery is a virtue of character prized by Aristotle and representative of the prevailing attitudes of the time. The extremes of bravery include cowardice and fearlessness. Being brave does not mean that one is unafraid; likewise, a person who is not truly brave may act in a way that seems brave due to simply not understanding the risks inherent in a particular choice or action.


Calmness is a virtue of character that deals with the topic of anger. Aristotle points out that the calm person is not devoid of anger, and anger can be an important and useful tool. However, the calm person is angry at “the right things.” This virtue lies between acting too passionately and impulsively and failing to feel anger when anger is justified. Some translations use the term meekness rather than calmness.


Aristotle uses craft in a way that is similar to art. He states that craft is about creating a product, as opposed to scientific knowledge. The individual takes knowledge and applies it to create something; he describes this as another means by which the soul seeks truth.