40 pages 1 hour read

Max Weber

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Nonfiction | Book | Adult | Published in 1905

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Summary and Study Guide


The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by German historian and sociologist Max Weber in 1905. Weber is often considered to be one of the founders of the discipline of sociology, and The Protestant Ethic is one of his most famous texts. As a work of sociology, the book seeks to analyze broad changes in both the economic and the religious structures of Western European and American societies. Over the course of the book, Weber argues that modern-day capitalist attitudes toward work and money have their basis in the religious doctrines of various Protestant sects of Christianity. This guide follows Stephen Kalberg’s translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, published by Routledge in 2012.


The Protestant Ethic’s first chapter provides an overview of the concepts that Weber will analyze and develop in the book. Weber opens by noting that in capitalist countries in the West, Protestants tend to make up the majority of business owners and employers—those individuals who have most succeeded within a capitalist economy. Weber notes that there is a particular disparity between the economic status of Protestants and Catholics, which many writers have explained by arguing that Protestant attitudes tend to be more materialistic, while Catholics tend to avoid worldly concerns. However, Weber notes that the opposite has historically been true, with Protestants being associated with an ascetic lifestyle. As such, Weber believes that a more in-depth analysis of Protestantism is required to understand its connection to capitalism.

In the second chapter, Weber explores the notion of the “spirit of capitalism.” Through writings by Benjamin Franklin and some other sources, Weber argues that capitalism is characterized by a specific work ethic and attitude toward money. This ethic presents the earning of money to be a moral duty of individuals and openly advocates that individuals should accumulate as much wealth as possible. However, the spirit of capitalism also sees any enjoyment of these riches as morally suspect and advocates that individuals should instead lead an ascetic lifestyle.

Chapter 3 shifts to discuss the religious ideas of Protestantism, especially with regards to how they connect to ideas of work and money. Weber begins by analyzing the teachings of Martin Luther, who is widely seen as having launched the Protestant Reformation in 1517. Weber argues that the modern-day notion of having a “calling” stems from the teachings of Martin Luther, who sought to locate morality in the believer’s daily life. Luther’s writings emphasized the importance of what Weber calls this-worldly work and saw the act of working within one’s vocational calling as a duty commanded to individuals by God.

Weber traces the development of this notion of the calling in Chapter 4, exploring how later Protestant sects further emphasized the importance of work. Central to Weber’s analysis is the Protestant doctrine of predestination, according to which individuals are predestined for either heaven or hell. Calvinism advocated tireless work as a way for anxious believers to gain a feeling of certainty that they had been chosen by God for salvation. Weber also discusses the Protestant baptizing sects, such as the Quakers, who advocated an ascetic lifestyle and avoidance of material pleasures.

In Chapter 5, Weber describes how Protestantism helped to develop the spirit of capitalism. Weber analyzes the writings of English Puritan Richard Baxter, who teaches that individuals should seek to earn as much money as possible while also avoiding living off their wealth and ceasing to work. Though such an attitude toward work and money has its basis in Protestant religious ideas, Weber argues that it became secularized and widespread as capitalism grew to become the dominant economic system. As a result, the Protestant work ethic developed into the modern-day spirit of capitalism, in which individuals are encouraged to work and earn as much money as possible while avoiding any enjoyment of their material wealth.

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