54 pages 1 hour read

Anna Julia Cooper

A Voice from the South: By a Black Woman of the South

Nonfiction | Book | Adult | Published in 1892

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Summary and Study Guide


A Voice From the South is a collection of eight essays by African American scholar, educator, and activist Anna J. Cooper, originally published in 1892. The collection is Cooper’s first book and addresses the issue of racism against African Americans in the late 19th century. Cooper focuses on the position of Black women in American society while providing socio-cultural criticism. A Voice From the South is widely considered an early and seminal text of Black feminism.

Anna J. Cooper was born enslaved in North Carolina in 1858, before the abolition of slavery in 1865. She went on to pursue higher education, earning a PhD from the Sorbonne University in Paris. Cooper was the fourth African American woman to obtain a doctoral degree. Her academic contributions also extend to sociology. She was an early advocate for women’s rights and racial and gender equality.

This guide refers to the 2022 e-book edition by General Press.

Content Warning: The source material and this guide discuss issues of racism and sexism. The text includes racial epithets about African Americans, biased perspectives on Eastern cultures, and biases and outdated terminology about Indigenous peoples. The guide reproduces racial epithets only in quotations.


A Voice From the South is one of the first books of Black feminist thought and discusses the struggles and civil rights quest of African Americans in the post-Reconstruction era. Cooper anticipates several 20th-century developments in the discourse for racial and gender equality. She explains that her main cause of writing the book is to uplift the voices of Black women, especially in the South.

In “Womanhood a Vital Element in the Regeneration and Progress of a Race,” Cooper highlights the significance of women as necessary agents in society. She emphasizes their influential roles as wives and mothers in character building and notes that they are pivotal for social progress. Women have the ability and responsibility to revitalize culture through their morality and kindness. She argues for special attention toward Black women, who are crucial for the empowerment of the whole African American community. She urges the people of her time to reinforce their education, development, and freedom. After a long history of enslavement, African Americans have to reclaim their humanity. Womanhood is essential in the quest for human rights. Cooper criticizes the policies of the Black church, a center for the community, for not doing enough to ensure Black women’s empowerment. At the time of writing, African Americans are at a crucial historical point, and Cooper urges them to action.

In “The Higher Education of Women,” Cooper criticizes gender discrimination in educational institutions and supports women’s freedom to pursue higher education. As America is entering a new age of material prosperity, women are necessary forces, and Cooper argues that they should join the socio-political sphere. She states that female agency is essential in all aspects of culture. Cooper reiterates her views on gender equality and stresses that both feminine and masculine traits are necessary for the human whole. Cooper advocates for Black women’s education and criticizes sexism within the African American community, which has not encouraged women’s development. Many young working-class women are struggling to make ends meet while pursuing higher education. Cooper stresses that Black women’s development would empower all African Americans.

In “Woman Versus the Indian,” Cooper introduces her intersectional lens on oppression. She criticizes racial discrimination within the feminist movement and rejects the exclusionary connection between womanhood and whiteness. She emphasizes the importance of unity between women, as their cause is the recognition of everyone’s humanity. She adds that the legacy of slavery still impacts race relations, while Black people want to reclaim their lives as free American citizens. Human rights can be achieved with the rejection of all forms of prejudice and domination. Cooper connects the women’s cause to Indigenous and Black rights, stressing that women’s liberation would uplift all oppressed groups.

In “The Status of Woman in America,” Cooper provides socio-cultural criticism, noting that at an age of capitalist development, women must be a moral and revitalizing force in society and culture. She stresses that they must contribute to political and social issues outside the domestic realm. She reiterates her intersectional approach by emphasizing the important role of Black women regarding the social crisis of the period. Black women’s intersectional oppression, due to both racism and sexism, provides them with a unique grasp of societal crises, and their perspective and participation are keys in racial progress.

In “Has America a Race Problem; If So, How Can It Best Be Solved?,” Cooper presents a positive perspective on American’s racial issues by emphasizing the value of multiculturalism. Cooper argues that positive racial conflict ensures social progress, as it reinforces balance and reciprocity. The domination of one race signals death for civilization, while the co-existence of different cultures provides the possibility of perpetual revitalization. Through her analysis of multiculturalism, Cooper underscores the destructive impact of white supremacy and highlights America’s multiracial foundations.

In “One Phase of American Literature,” Cooper explores the literary representation of African Americans. She notes that the majority of narratives were created by white authors who remain ignorant of Black lives. As a result, they perpetuate inauthentic and stereotypical portrayals of Black people that continue their dehumanization. Simultaneously, she notes that those stereotypes reveal the fears and grievances of white people, as they project their own ideologies onto Black people. Cooper argues that a truthful portrayal of African Americans can only come from the community itself.

In “What Are We Worth,” Cooper counters narratives about Black people’s lack of cultural production. She mentions their contributions to the nation as intellectuals, thinkers, ministers, and soldiers. However, she also emphasizes the necessity for true emancipation, as discrimination continues to restrict Black people in the status of laborers. Struggle for survival inhibits African American creativity. However, Cooper stresses Black people’s determination and perseverance for the advancement of their race.

The final essay, “The Gain From a Belief,” demonstrates the centrality of religion and Christian faith in Cooper’s thought. She opposes dominant philosophical developments of the period like positivism and agnosticism, arguing that they negate the possibility of progress. For Cooper, faith in God connects to humanity and love. Real religion reinforces and respects human life. Faith is empowering, counters materialism and the objectification of people, and inspires them to fight for a better world.

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