Irish Literature

With their dark wit, undeniable music, and insights into the sacred and profane, Irish texts have their own distinctive place in the canon of world literature. This collection of study guides pays homage to classic and contemporary Irish writers, from Samuel Beckett, Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw, and Oscar Wilde to John Boyne.

Publication year 1729Genre Essay / Speech, NonfictionTags Satire, Irish Literature

A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick is a satirical essay published anonymously in 1729 by Irish author Jonathan Swift. Using irony and hyperbole, the essay mocks heartless attitudes toward the poor among English and Irish elites by proposing that impoverished families sell their infant children to be killed and eaten by the rich. One... Read A Modest Proposal Summary

Publication year 1996Genre Autobiography / Memoir, NonfictionThemes Life/Time: Childhood & Youth, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Life/Time: Coming of Age, Relationships: FamilyTags Poverty, Irish Literature

Angela’s Ashes is a 1996 memoir written by Frank McCourt. It recounts his challenging upbringing in the slums of Limerick, Ireland. At the heart of the memoir is McCourt’s account of the people and events of his childhood, and how he tried to make sense of the world around him. McCourt narrates in the present tense and follows a generally chronological order, with his time in America as a young child and then later as... Read Angela's Ashes Summary

Publication year 1916Genre Novel, FictionThemes Life/Time: Coming of Age, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Values/Ideas: Art, Identity: LanguageTags Classic Fiction, Coming of Age / Bildungsroman, Auto/Biographical Fiction, Irish Literature, Modernism

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is the 1916 debut novel by Irish author James Joyce. The novel tells the story of Stephen Dedalus, a thinly-veiled alter ego for Joyce, who embarks on a journey of artistic awakening. As a landmark novel in the history of literary modernism, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man has been hailed as one of the most important works of the 20th century and... Read A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Summary

Publication year 1914Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Life/Time: Coming of Age, Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Emotions/Behavior: Guilt, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Emotions/Behavior: Shame & Pride, Emotions/Behavior: Determination / Perseverance, Emotions/Behavior: Loneliness, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Values/Ideas: Beauty, Values/Ideas: Truth & LiesTags Classic Fiction, Irish Literature

“Araby” is a short story by Irish writer James Joyce. The story is a part of Joyce’s renowned Dubliners collection, first published in 1914, which portrays daily life in the Irish city of Dublin in the early 20th century. In “Araby,” a young boy falls in love with his friend’s sister and attempts to purchase her a gift from the Araby Bazaar. The short story has been adapted as a song and a short film... Read Araby Summary

Publication year 1999Genre Novel, FictionTags Historical Fiction, Irish Literature

Irish novelist and screenwriter Roddy Doyle was born in Dublin in 1958. His work is renowned both for its treatment of Irish working-class life and its deployment of Dublin dialect. His 1993 masterpiece, Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha, won the Booker Prize. A Star Called Henry (1999) is the first in The Last Round Up trilogy, which follows the life of Henry, a working-class Dublin boy born at the turn of the 20th century. Henry’s... Read A Star Called Henry Summary

Publication year 1704Genre Novella, FictionThemes Relationships: SiblingsTags Satire, Irish Literature

Jonathan Swift wrote A Tale of a Tub (published in 1704) not only to expound upon the hypocrisy of religion in early 18th century England, but to explore ideas about critics, oration, ancient and modern philosophies, digressions, and the nature of writing itself. These themes are all underscored with a satirical tone that takes religion, authors, and critics to task. The title refers to the tub that sailors used to toss out to distract whales... Read A Tale Of A Tub Summary

Publication year 1710Genre Book, NonfictionThemes Identity: Language, Values/Ideas: Science & Technology, Natural World: EnvironmentTags Philosophy, Metaphysical, Irish Literature

Irish philosopher and Anglican Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753) wrote A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge in 1710. The short work expounds Berkeley’s philosophy of immaterialism, a form of empiricism asserting that nothing exists outside of a mind’s perception of it. Objects, therefore, are not things, but ideas. Berkeley’s philosophy critiques that of contemporary empiricists John Locke and David Hume, who contended that the mind can perceive the material world in abstract and that... Read A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Summary

Publication year 1939Genre Novel, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Literature, Society: Class, Values/Ideas: Fate, Life/Time: The Past, Values/Ideas: Power & Greed, Values/Ideas: Good & Evil, Values/Ideas: Trust & Doubt, Emotions/Behavior: ConflictTags Irish Literature, Humor, Fantasy, Magical Realism, Fairy Tale / Folklore, Satire, Arts / Culture, Class, British Literature

Publication year 1925Genre Book, NonfictionThemes Values/Ideas: Literature, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Self Discovery, Values/Ideas: ArtTags Philosophy, Irish Literature

Publication year 2012Genre Novel, FictionThemes Relationships: Family, Relationships: Friendship, Society: Community, Emotions/Behavior: Determination / Perseverance, Emotions/Behavior: HopeTags Romance, Irish Literature

Publication year 1998Genre Novel, FictionThemes Identity: Gender, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Society: WarTags Realistic Fiction, Historical Fiction, Humor, Coming of Age / Bildungsroman, LGBTQ, Military / War, Trauma / Abuse / Violence, Irish Literature

Breakfast on Pluto is a novel by the distinguished Irish writer Patrick McCabe, who is known for his experimental style and controversial themes. First published in 1998, the book contains elements of fantasy and historical fiction. It presents the narrative of “the life and times” of Patrick Braden, a transgender person growing up in Ireland and London during the 1960s and 1970s. Through Braden’s journey of self-discovery, McCabe portrays a country amid turbulent political, national... Read Breakfast on Pluto Summary

Publication year 2009Genre Novel, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Love, Life/Time: Coming of Age, Society: Immigration, Emotions/Behavior: Nostalgia, Relationships: FamilyTags Romance, Historical Fiction, Irish Literature, American Literature

Brooklyn is a 2009 historical fiction novel written by Colm Tóibín. The book follows Eilis Lacey as she emigrates from Ireland to Brooklyn in the 1950s, finding a job in a department store and falling in love with a young Italian man named Tony. Despite her new life in Brooklyn, Eilis makes a return to Enniscorthy, the same town Colm Tóibín was born and raised in, when her older sister Rose dies. While there, she... Read Brooklyn Summary

Publication year 1914Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Life/Time: Midlife, Values/Ideas: Justice & Injustice, Values/Ideas: EqualityTags Irish Literature, Classic Fiction

Publication year 2017Genre Novel, FictionThemes Identity: Femininity, Society: Politics & Government, Relationships: FriendshipTags Romance, LGBTQ, Irish Literature

Conversations with Friends is Irish writer Sally Rooney’s debut novel, published in 2017. Rooney wrote the novel when she was 25 and followed it up quickly with Normal People in 2018 and Beautiful World, Where Are You in 2021. All three works have garnered award nominations and the first two have been adapted into television series. Conversations with Friends tells the story of Frances and Bobbi— college students, best friends, and former girlfriends—and Nick and... Read Conversations with Friends Summary

Publication year 1990Genre Play, FictionTags Irish Literature

Dancing at Lughnasa is a two-act play by Irish dramatist Brian Friel. The play debuted in 1990 and received many accolades, including several Tony Awards. It was also adapted into a 1998 feature film directed by Pat O’Connor.Dancing at Lughnasa is set during the summer of 1936 in the Irish town of Ballybeg. Though a fictional town, Ballybeg contains many similarities to Glenties, in County Donegal, where Friel lived until he was ten years old. In... Read Dancing At Lughnasa Summary

Publication year 1914Genre Short Story Collection, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Loneliness, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Emotions/Behavior: Regret, Emotions/Behavior: Shame & Pride, Identity: Masculinity, Identity: Mental Health, Life/Time: Coming of Age, Life/Time: Mortality & Death, Relationships: Fathers, Society: Class, Society: Colonialism, Society: Nation, Society: Politics & Government, Values/Ideas: Power & GreedTags Classic Fiction, Historical Fiction, Irish Literature

Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by Irish writer James Joyce. Originally published in 1914, the collection met resistance from publishers and critics due to its controversial themes and unusual portrayal of the everyday. Dubliners follows a range of people living in the titular city, often seeking some form of social or emotional transcendence without ever truly achieving it. This study guide is for the 1965 paperback edition from Penguin Modern Classics. Content... Read Dubliners Summary

Publication year 1957Genre Play, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Loneliness, Relationships: Family, Life/Time: Mortality & Death, Life/Time: The Future, Emotions/Behavior: RegretTags Play: Tragedy, Play: Comedy / Satire, Irish Literature, Absurdism

Endgame is a one-act, absurdist play by Samuel Beckett, first performed in 1957. The post-apocalyptic play portrays the farcical, tragic existence of four character who are caught in an unfulfilling routine. Beckett regarded the play as one of his greatest achievements. It has been adapted as an opera and as a short film.This guide uses the 2009 Faber and Faber edition. Plot SummaryThe curtain rises on a nearly bare stage: a room in Hamm’s home... Read Endgame Summary

Publication year 1904Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Emotions/Behavior: Grief, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Relationships: Family, Society: ColonialismTags Irish Literature, Modernism, Gender / Feminism

“Eveline” is the fourth short story in James Joyce’s Dubliners collection, completed in 1907 and published in London in 1914. This story, like the others in Dubliners, reveals Joyce’s view of Ireland, then a British colony, as existing in a state of paralysis. Alongside this broader theme, “Eveline” also explores topics like duty versus freedom, English imperialism, and individual autonomy. Nearly a story of a young woman escaping the confines of her abusive and lonely... Read Eveline Summary

Publication year 1939Genre Novel, FictionThemes Identity: Language, Natural World: Appearance & Reality, Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Emotions/Behavior: Fear, Emotions/Behavior: Determination / Perseverance, Emotions/Behavior: NostalgiaTags Classic Fiction, Irish Literature, Fairy Tale / Folklore

Finnegans Wake is a 1939 novel by James Joyce. The experimental style of the novel has given Finnegans Wake a reputation for being one of the most challenging texts in the English language. Joyce’s use of idiosyncratic language and phrasing, his structural innovations, and his ambitious themes attempt to explore the boundaries between sleep, dreams, and waking life. Though Finnegans Wake has not been adapted into other media in its totality, its influence and legacy... Read Finnegans Wake Summary

Publication year 1951Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Fear, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Emotions/Behavior: GuiltTags Classic Fiction, Irish Literature

Drawing on the author’s hardscrabble childhood in early-20th-century Ireland, Frank O’Connor’s “First Confession” chronicles the experience of seven-year-old Jackie, who must ready himself for the emotional and spiritual challenge of his first confession in the Catholic Church. The story was first published as “Repentance” in 1935 but heavily revised in later editions. This guide follows the version most reprinted today from O’Connor’s 1951 collection Traveller's Samples: Stories and Tales. O’Connor (1903-1966), who published more than... Read First Confession Summary

Publication year 1995Genre Book, NonfictionThemes Society: Nation, Society: Globalization, Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Society: EducationTags History: European, Irish Literature, Religion / Spirituality

How the Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland’s Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe is a popular history by Irish American author Thomas Cahill, published in 1995. The book argues that Ireland’s conversion to Christianity was instrumental in preserving the remnants of classical culture that survived in Western Europe after the Roman Empire’s demise. The book was on The New York Times Best Seller list for... Read How the Irish Saved Civilization Summary

Publication year 1914Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Good & Evil, Emotions/Behavior: Nostalgia, Society: Nation, Society: Politics & Government, Values/Ideas: LiteratureTags Politics / Government, Irish Literature, Modernism

Publication year 1924Genre Play, FictionThemes Relationships: Family, Society: War, Life/Time: Mortality & DeathTags Play: Drama, Class, Irish Literature, Realism

Irish-born playwright Sean O’Casey’s Juno and the Paycock was first produced in 1924 at the Abbey Theatre, Ireland’s national theatre, in Dublin. This Realistic play is one of three plays (known as the “Dublin Trilogy”) that O’Casey wrote for the Abbey Theatre. Juno and the Paycock is anthologized in various collections, including Masters of Modern Drama by Haskell Block and Robert Shedd in 1962 (which this guide references).The play is set entirely in a two-room... Read Juno and the Paycock Summary

Publication year 1958Genre Play, FictionTags Irish Literature

Krapp’s Last Tape is a one-act, one-man play by Irish avant-garde writer Samuel Beckett. It was first performed in 1958. Krapp is elderly and emotionally depressed. It is his 69th birthday. To mark the occasion, Krapp first listens to a tape he made on his thirty-ninth birthday to record important events and thoughts of the past year. Krapp sits at his desk but is facing away from it. Atop the desk are boxes containing reels... Read Krapp's Last Tape Summary

Publication year 1903Genre Play, FictionThemes Relationships: MarriageTags Satire, Irish Literature

In an epistolary preface to Man and Superman (1903), Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw writes a letter to Arthur Bingham Walkley, his friend and a theatre critic for The Times, who had inspired the play by asking Shaw why he had never written a play based on Don Juan, the legendary fictional Spanish lothario. This presented a particular challenge for Shaw, who had been writing works that challenged the popular romanticism that dominated theatre at... Read Man And Superman Summary

Publication year 1966Genre Poem, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Grief, Relationships: Family, Life/Time: Childhood & YouthTags Lyric Poem, Grief / Death, Irish Literature

Publication year 1950Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Relationships: Fathers, Relationships: Daughters & Sons, Emotions/Behavior: Conflict, Life/Time: Childhood & YouthTags Irish Literature

Publication year 1985Genre Poem, FictionThemes Life/Time: The Past, Natural World: Place, Identity: Language, Values/Ideas: Literature, Society: WarTags Lyric Poem, Irish Literature, History: European

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Identity: Mental Health, Values/Ideas: Good & Evil, Values/Ideas: Truth & LiesTags Mystery / Crime Fiction, Irish Literature, Horror / Thriller / Suspense Fiction

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Society: War, Values/Ideas: Justice & Injustice, Relationships: Mothers, Values/Ideas: Power & GreedTags Irish Literature, Science-Fiction / Dystopian Fiction

Publication year 1975Genre Poem, FictionThemes Identity: GenderTags Free verse, Trauma / Abuse / Violence, Irish Literature

Publication year 1904Genre Play, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Grief, Values/Ideas: Fate, Emotions/Behavior: Apathy, Emotions/Behavior: Conflict, Emotions/Behavior: Determination / Perseverance, Life/Time: Mortality & Death, Natural World: Environment, Relationships: Mothers, Relationships: Siblings, Society: NationTags Play: Tragedy, Irish Literature

Riders to the Sea (1904) is a one-act Irish play by John Millington Synge, originally performed in the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. The play portrays the events of one day in the cottage of a low-income family living on Inishmaan, one of the Aran Islands off the west coast of Ireland, as they cope with the loss of male relatives to the rough waters between the islands and mainland Ireland. This short play incorporates themes... Read Riders to the Sea Summary

Publication year 1923Genre Play, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Society: Politics & Government, Emotions/Behavior: courage, Emotions/Behavior: Determination / Perseverance, Identity: Gender, Identity: Mental HealthTags Play: Drama, Play: Tragedy, Play: Historical, Irish Literature, Post-War Era

Saint Joan is a play by playwright George Bernard Shaw that premiered in 1923. The play tells the story of the 15th-century French historical figure Joan of Arc, who was formally canonized as a catholic saint in 1920. The play was a critical success, and, shortly after its premiere, Shaw was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1925. Shaw includes a lengthy preface before the script of the play where he compares the medieval... Read Saint Joan Summary

Publication year 1891Genre Play, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Beauty, Identity: Sexuality, Values/Ideas: Religion & SpiritualityTags Play: Tragedy, Love / Sexuality, Irish Literature, Victorian Period

Publication year 1966Genre Poem, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Love, Relationships: FriendshipTags Lyric Poem, Relationships, Irish Literature

Publication year 2010Genre Novel, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Grief, Emotions/Behavior: Guilt, Life/Time: Childhood & Youth, Life/Time: Mortality & Death, Relationships: FriendshipTags Irish Literature

Skippy Dies, published in 2010, is a tragicomic novel by Irish author Paul Murray. Murray originally wrote the novel as a short story before expanding it into a longform work of fiction, basing the Catholic boarding school where the book is set on the prestigious secondary school the author attended in Dublin. The novel was nominated for the longlists and shortlists of several distinguished awards, including the Booker Prize, the Irish Novel of the Year... Read Skippy Dies Summary

Publication year 2021Genre Novella, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Values/Ideas: Power & Greed, Values/Ideas: Good & EvilTags Historical Fiction, Irish Literature, Holidays & Occasions

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Hate & Anger, Identity: Mental Health, Life/Time: The Past, Natural World: Nurture v. Nature, Relationships: Daughters & Sons, Relationships: Siblings, Self Discovery, Values/Ideas: Trust & Doubt, Values/Ideas: Truth & LiesTags Mystery / Crime Fiction, Horror / Thriller / Suspense Fiction, Irish Literature

Publication year 2005Genre Autobiography / Memoir, NonfictionThemes Life/Time: Coming of AgeTags Education, Irish Literature

Teacher Man: A Memoir is a 2005 nonfiction book by Frank McCourt. It is the third and final memoir in a series by McCourt, the first being the Pulitzer Prize–winning Angela’s Ashes (about McCourt’s childhood and teen years in Ireland) published in 1996, and the second being ’Tis (about his life after immigrating to America at age 19), published in 1999. Teacher Man focuses on McCourt’s decades-long teaching career in various New York City schools... Read Teacher Man Summary

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Relationships: Family, Emotions/Behavior: Guilt, Emotions/Behavior: Loneliness, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Emotions/Behavior: Shame & Pride, Identity: Sexuality, Life/Time: Coming of Age, Life/Time: Midlife, Natural World: Environment, Relationships: Daughters & Sons, Society: Class, Values/Ideas: Safety & Danger, Values/Ideas: Truth & LiesTags Horror / Thriller / Suspense Fiction, Drama / Tragedy, Irish Literature

Publication year 2015Genre Novel, FictionTags Children's Literature, Irish Literature

John Boyne’s juvenile historical novel The Boy at the Top of the Mountain (2016, Henry Holt and Company) weaves real-life figures and events into the fictional story of a boy named Pierrot Fischer, who becomes corrupted after falling under the direct influence of the Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler. The novel’s central themes involve the conflicts and struggles of life under Nazi rule, as well as Pierrot’s move from innocence and naïveté to violence and abuse—and... Read The Boy at The Top of the Mountain Summary

Publication year 1887Genre Novella, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: ForgivenessTags Satire, Classic Fiction, Irish Literature

The Canterville Ghost, by Oscar Wilde, is a story about forgiveness, love, and the clash of Old World and New World beliefs. Through a satirical approach, Wilde highlights the shortcomings of each set of beliefs and how the characters overcome those shortcomings to bridge the two worlds. The story begins with Hiram Otis and Lord Canterville discussing the ghost that haunts Canterville Chase, where the Otis family will be living. When they arrive, they find... Read The Canterville Ghost Summary

Publication year 1890Genre Poem, FictionThemes Life/Time: Childhood & Youth, Emotions/Behavior: Nostalgia, Emotions/Behavior: Memory, Natural World: PlaceTags Science / Nature, Irish Literature, Lyric Poem

“The Lake Isle of Innisfree” is a lyric poem written by William Butler Yeats, a prominent Irish poet, essayist, and dramatist, who was known for his promotion of Irish culture and its political autonomy. The poem appeared early in Yeats’s career and demonstrates his concern with incorporating positive Irish images and mythology into his writing as part of the Celtic Revival movement of the late 19th century. In the poem, the speaker expresses their longing... Read The Lake Isle of Innisfree Summary

Publication year 1888Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Emotions/Behavior: Love, Values/Ideas: Art, Values/Ideas: Power & GreedTags Allegory / Fable / Parable, Fantasy, Romance, Irish Literature

“The Nightingale and the Rose” is a children’s story by Irish writer Oscar Wilde, included in his 1888 fairy tale collection, The Happy Prince and Other Tales. Like many of the other stories in the collection, “The Nightingale and the Rose” is a fable examining the nature of love and self-sacrifice. “The Nightingale and the Rose” conforms to the simplistic story structure of traditional fairy tales while subverting many of the genre’s norms.This guide refers... Read The Nightingale and the Rose Summary

Publication year 1890Genre Novel, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Beauty, Values/Ideas: Good & Evil, Values/Ideas: ArtTags Classic Fiction, British Literature, Victorian Period, Irish Literature, Arts / Culture

The Picture of Dorian Gray chronicles the life of Dorian Gray, a fictional 19th-century British aristocrat. When the narrative opens, a somewhat successful painter named Basil Hallward is painting Dorian’s portrait. A frivolously provocative aristocrat named Lord Henry Wotton—a friend of Hallward’s—sees Dorian’s almost supernatural beauty in the painting as an example of his devotion to upholding formalized artistic beauty above all else. Later, Dorian, too, begins thinking of beauty in these terms, and when... Read The Picture of Dorian Gray Summary

Publication year 1907Genre Play, FictionThemes Society: Community, Relationships: Fathers, Emotions/Behavior: Loneliness, Relationships: Marriage, Identity: MasculinityTags Play: Drama, Classic Fiction, Irish Literature, Trauma / Abuse / Violence, Play: Comedy / Satire

The Playboy of the Western World is a comedy written by Irish playwright John M. Synge. The play was first produced in 1907 at the Abbey Theatre, or the National Theatre of Ireland. Although his work was largely criticized during his lifetime, Synge is one of Ireland’s most famous 20th-century playwrights. He wrote only six plays during his relatively short career; the most notable among his works are The Playboy of the Western World and... Read The Playboy of the Western World Summary

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Relationships: Family, Identity: Gender, Life/Time: Coming of AgeTags Historical Fiction, Irish Literature

Publication year 2023Genre Novel, FictionThemes Life/Time: Coming of Age, Emotions/Behavior: Love, Identity: Sexuality, Relationships: Friendship, Self DiscoveryTags Irish Literature, LGBTQ, Romance

Publication year 1904Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Values/Ideas: Religion & Spirituality, Life/Time: Childhood & Youth, Society: Community, Values/Ideas: Good & EvilTags Classic Fiction, Irish Literature

Publication year 1923Genre Short Story, FictionThemes Society: War, Relationships: Family, Emotions/Behavior: GuiltTags Historical Fiction, Military / War, Irish Literature, Drama / Tragedy

“The Sniper” is a short story by Liam O’Flaherty. It was first published in the British socialist newspaper, The New Leader in January 1923. The story takes place within the span of a few hours during an afternoon in June 1922 (the beginning of the Irish Civil War). The Irish Civil War was a one-year struggle that began in June 1922 and concluded in May 1923.“The Sniper” portrays the experience of a Republican (rebel) sniper... Read The Sniper Summary